The Road to the Paris Agreement DestaqueEscrito por Jose Erik Brito Pereira - Estagiário
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Climate change presents a critical global challenge that can only be addressed through the multilateral process. Brazil strongly supports the international regime established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and is committed to its strengthening by contributing with its best efforts to negotiate an agreement that is legally binding, universal, equitable, balanced and ambitious, with the ultimate goals of keeping global average temperatures below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and of steering the global community towards a path of sustainable development. After a number of rounds of negotiations in preparation for the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP), the latest session, held in Bonn past October, resulted in an improved draft text that will be the starting point for the Paris Agreement. There remains, nonetheless, a series of issues to be negotiated during COP21. As we approach COP-21, to be held in Paris, France, between 30 November and 11 December, we bring an overview of Brazil’s expectations regarding some of the main issues to be negotiated before the world can reach the long anticipated Paris Agreement. The new agreement must observe the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), one of the key principles of the Convention. Historical contributions to climate change ought to be taken into account for definitions regarding key aspects, such as climate finance to developing countries and technology transfers. In line with that, Brazil intends to advocate for the concentric differentiation approach. Another important element for Brazil will be the definition of a five year cycles for Parties to update their Nationally Determined Contributions. This should enable countries to assess how their implementation has progressed, setting more ambitious emission reduction targets moving forward. In September 2015, the Brazilian Government gave a clear demonstration of the country’s serious intent to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Brazil’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) sets forward an economy wide absolute target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 37% below 2005 levels in 2025 and 43% by 2030. This contribution has been set, notwithstanding Brazil’s intertwined challenges posed by population growth, social mobility and expanding the access to energy. Brazil is also determined to contribute beyond climate mitigation actions, particularly in the form of South-South cooperation, through the provision of technical and capacity-building support to other developing countries. In a context where actions in the land use change and forest sector will be key to achieve the 2025 and 2030 objectives, Brazil defined REDD+ as a mean for the implementation of Brazil’s INDC. Brazil expects that the agreement that will be approved by the COP-21 will further foster the support for results-based payments to enhance the effectiveness of REDD+ actions. Brazil has been the first country to implement the Warsaw Framework for REDD+. In September 2015, the verification process of REDD+ results achieved in the Amazon biome was successfully concluded, attesting emissions reduction to the tune of 2.9 Gt CO2e between 2006 and 2010. Making it an unquestionably major mitigation contribution in this period.